Heritage Language 2 Consortium

A strategic partnership for the study of Portuguese in multilingual settings

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Call for papers: International Conference ‘Language MOOCs and OERs: new trends and challenges’

Deadline for submitting abstracts: June 11

The Faculty of Arts of the University of Porto (PT) is organizing the International Conference “Language MOOCS and OERS : new trends and challenges” in collaboration with the University for Foreigners of Perugia (IT), the University of Masaryk (CZ), the Jagiellonian University (PL), The University Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopia (MK), and the National Federation of Teachers Initiative Center for Europe – FENICE (IT). The Universities join in partnership for the project ‘LMOOC4Slav – Romance Languages ​​for Slavic-Speaking University Students’, funded under the Erasmus+ programme. The conference will take place at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Porto, Portugal, in person, on October 7th and 8th, 2022.The conference aims to bring together higher education professionals, experts in applied linguistics and experts in educational technologies working on issues related to language learning and teaching, namely: MOOCs, OERs, new approaches to language teaching and learning, mobility academic, linguistic description, linguistic diversity, languages ​​for specific purposes, digital transformation in Education and new educational technologies, new collaborative projects, multiculturalism and inclusion.

The deadline for submitting abstracts is June 11th .
Papers can be submitted in Portuguese, Italian or English.
More information about the conference and abstract submission at:


HL2C Seminar: Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves (Camões Institute), Teacher training in heritage language education: Challenges and opportunities

We are very pleased to announce our next HL2C seminar, taking place on Thursday 28th April 2022, from 3pm to 4pm (Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London).


Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves (Camões Institute)


Teacher training in heritage language education: Challenges and opportunities

How to join:

Our seminars are free to attend. Simply sign up to the HL2C Mailing List to receive the link to join us via Microsoft Teams link. You do not need a Teams account to access the talk.


Teaching Heritage Language (HL) is usually described as an endeavour situated within a continuum ranging from teaching L1 to teaching FL. Findings on the characteristics of heritage language speakers are helpful to guide teaching approaches, which intertwined with context knowledge, have been able to assist teachers to design successful teaching practices.

In this emerging field of research of Language Didactics, both teachers and researchers have been engaged in understanding and describing the specific work of HL teachers, in order to design adequate training and teacher education plans (Gonçalves & Melo-Pfeifer, 2020).

Based on the experience acquired over nine years of designing teacher education plans to assist HL teachers’ needs, this presentation will highlight some specific aspects of professional knowledge, having in mind and referring to challenges and opportunities of teacher training in heritage language education.

Gonçalves, M. L.; Melo Pfeifer, S. (Coord). (2020). Língua de Herança e Formação de Professores. Lisboa: Lidel.

Registration open: Lisbon Summer School in Linguistics 2022

Registration for the Lisbon Summer School in Linguistics 2022 is now open! Enrolment is open until June 20, 2022.

This year’s edition includes courses on bilingual development, L2 speech learning, and L2 morphological processing, which will be of interest to many of you.

Dates and location: July 4-8, 2022, School of Social Sciences and Humanities of NOVA University Lisbon (website)

Organizers: The Summer School is co-organized by NOVA’s Linguistics Research Centre (CLUNL) with the support of Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), ELEXIS, NexusLinguarum and Prêt à LLOD.

Program: There are nine courses offered. The program is available here. You can also check the abstracts of each course per area:

  • Area 1: Formal and Experimental Linguistics (PDF)
    Area 2: Terminology and Lexicography (PDF)
    Area 3: Grammar & Text (PDF)

How to enroll: To enroll, please consider the payment information available here and fill in the form available here.

Audience: PhD students are the main target audience, but the summer school is open to post-docs and more senior researchers, too.

For more information, please visit the Lisbon Summer School website.

Multilingualism in São Tomé and Príncipe: Opportunities and challenges


On 16th March 2022, The Camões Institute’s Centro de Língua Portuguesa em São Tomé organized a roundtable to discuss the opportunities and challenges of multilingualism in São Tomé and Príncipe, as well as the relationship that can be established with formal teaching and learning of the Portuguese Language.

The topics discussed at the event included the preservation of local creoles; the opportunity for multilingualism as a factor of cognitive development and social progress; the state of Portuguese language teaching; and the importance of mastering it as an instrument of citizenship and democratic participation.

The panel was attended by São Toméan specialists in Linguistics, Sociolinguistics and creoles: Abigail Tiny Cosme, professor at the Faculty of Sciences and Technologies (FCT), Researcher at the University of Lisbon and Coordinator of the IILP for São Tomé and Príncipe; Caustrino Alcantara; the writer Frederico Gustavo dos Anjos; and the Coordinator of the Department of Languages ​​at FCT, Beatriz Afonso. It also included Elebrak Costa, a recent graduate in Portuguese who won the 1st prize for his graduation thesis in the 1st IILP/Itamaraty contest for scientific articles on the Portuguese language, moderated by Guilherme Figueiredo, CICL Reader in São Tomé. Teachers of primary, secondary and university education and undergraduate students in Portuguese were also present.

The event also included the participation of the group Leji-tela (roots of the earth), whose members presented a moment of dialogue themselves and the public using the various mother tongues spoken in the country: Portuguese, Santome, Angola and Lungu’ie.

Translated from The Camões Institute’s website.

HL2C Seminar: Joana Moscoso (Native Scientist) and Julia Schiefer (Tübingen), Exploring the effectiveness of an innovative science outreach programme for migrant students

We are excited to announce our next HL2C seminar, taking place on Thursday 31st March 2022, from 3pm to 4pm (Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London).


Joana Moscoso (Native Scientist) and Julia Schiefer (Tübingen)


Exploring the effectiveness of an innovative science outreach programme for migrant students

How to join:

Our seminars are free to attend. Simply sign up to the HL2C Mailing List to receive the link to join us via Microsoft Teams link. You do not need a Teams account to access the talk.


Inspiring ethnic minority and migrant students to pursue higher education or careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) challenges many European countries. This target group often underperforms in STEM subjects due to various reasons, including specific linguistic and educational needs. We will present the results of a randomized controlled trial testing the impact of an innovative science outreach program, which connects migrant students with scientists of the same linguistic and cultural background. The Native Scientist project (www.nativescientist.com) follows a science and language integrated learning approach bringing together real-world STEM professionals and migrant students to discuss science topics and science careers in the students’ heritage language. The interaction between scientists and students happens through workshops whose effectiveness has been studied for both the students and the scientists. We observed increased attainment value, intrinsic interest, self-concept, and intention to future participation in science, and increased intrinsic interest and self-concept of ability for the students’ heritage language immediately after the workshop. We also identified a range of challenges and benefits for participating scientists. Overall, results indicate a positive effect of the workshops and that it is possible to foster migrant students’ motivation for science through their participation in a science outreach program

Registration for Portuguese heritage language classes open

The Camões Institute, one of the constituent organizations of HL2C, has recently announced that the period for registration for Portuguese heritage language classes is now open.

If your child is a heritage speaker of Portuguese, independently of the proficiency level, you can register online until April 30, 2022.

For more information, please visit these websites: Portuguese version or English version.

For questions, please email the Coordinator of the Portuguese heritage language network in your region. The information can be found on the websites above.

The original news item can be found on this page of the Camões Institute.

HL2C YouTube Channel now online!

HL2C YouTube Channel now online

It is a pleasure to announce that the HL2C YouTube Channel is now up and running. We are using this channel to share video content of activities involving the Consortium and its constituent partner institutions.

You can access our channel by clicking this link.

We grateful to the speakers of our HL2C Seminar Series for their stimulating talks and for agreeing to share the recordings with the wider heritage language and second language community. Thank you also to Luiz Amaral, who suggested the creation of this channel, and to Sophie Bennett for editing the videos and co-managing the channel.

We hope you enjoy the YouTube Channel!


HL2C Seminar: Nur Ehsan Mohd Said (UKM), Differentiating instruction for EFL learners

We welcome you to our next HL2C seminar, taking place on Wednesday 9th March 2022, from 12pm to 1pm (Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London). The talk is co-organized with Lancaster’s SLLAT Research Group.


Nur Ehsan Mohd Said (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)


Differentiating instruction for EFL learners: Identifying and measuring changes in language attitude and critical thinking (Joint talk with Lancaster’s SLLAT Group.)

How to join:

Our seminars are free to attend. Simply sign up to the HL2C Mailing List to receive the link to join us via Microsoft Teams link. You do not need a Teams account to access the talk.


As a country that was once under British rule, Malaysia has accorded English the status of a second language and its teaching is compulsory at both primary and secondary schools. However, local scholars have reported mixed attitudes towards the English language as evidenced by research from different decades. While some users display a favourable attitude towards the teaching and learning of the language, others have indicated a fear that English could be a threat to the national language. Despite being an important language in the country, efforts to mandate the teaching of English outside English classrooms by the government (e.g. the teaching of Mathematics and Science) have resulted in a public outcry and street protests in the past.

In this talk, I will share findings from a preliminary study that investigated the effects of differentiated instruction (DI) on English language learners’ attitude. Over the years, education practitioners have introduced DI to accommodate multifarious learning needs within intact classrooms more efficiently, but it is a relatively novel concept in Malaysia with limited empirical evidence from English classrooms. Spanning 14 months, the study employed a classroom research design to investigate an English teacher and his students’ experience at a national secondary school. Data were collected by means of a pre- and posttest, and semi-structured interviews. The classroom intervention comprised a 13-week module, designed in line with the national curriculum and learning activities were tailored to the students’ learning styles. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated that DI has had a positive effect on language attitude with a large effect size while also revealing findings that may influence the landscape of language teaching in the country. The qualitative data revealed a rise in learner autonomy and acceptance of the differentiated learning tasks. In line with the government’s aspiration, it is proposed that DI should be practiced by English teachers more readily. It may be further facilitated by greater collaboration between university researchers and schoolteachers, and centralized provision of training nationwide.

HL2C Seminar: Magdalena Grose-Hodge (Birmingham), Are the heritage and dominant languages of early bilinguals less complex and less fluent than that of monolinguals?

Our next HL2C seminar will take place on Wednesday, March 2, 2022, from 12pm to 1pm (Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London). The talk is co-organized with Lancaster’s SLLAT Research Group.


Magdalena Grose-Hodge (The University of Birmingham)


Are the heritage and dominant languages of early bilinguals less complex and less fluent than that of monolinguals? A comparison of linguistic abilities of pre-adolescent Polish Heritage Speakers and monolingual controls.

How to join:

Our seminars are free to attend. Simply sign up to the HL2C Mailing List to receive the link to join us via Microsoft Teams link. You do not need a Teams account to access the talk.


Background: With an estimated half of the world using more than one language in everyday life, bilingualism is a norm rather than an exception. However, researchers in the field of language acquisition and processing traditionally focused on monolinguals and viewed bilingual speakers simply as “two monolinguals in one person”. Research into differences between monolingual and bilingual performance and processing is not only relatively new but has also been producing conflicting findings, which fuels the existing social ambivalence relating to the acquisition of two languages in childhood. As a result, many parents and teachers question whether the effort needed to maintain both languages is worth the outcome or worry that speaking a minority language at home may hamper their offspring’s achievement in the dominant language as children “may get confused”. However, studying heritage speakers (here defined as early bilinguals of a minority language (Montrul, 2006:161) is important not only from the point of educational policymaking but it is also central to our understanding of the architecture of language as it can offer a window into bilingual minds. Therefore, the population, which was first studied mainly by applied linguists, is now becoming of interest to theoretical linguists investigating the role of input and maturational factors in language acquisition.

What makes heritage speakers an interesting group is that they acquire their HL as their first language, yet their linguistic competence is often different from that of monolingual native speakers, which has led to the formulation of the Incomplete Acquisition Hypothesis (Polinsky, 2006; Montrul, 2008). According to this, certain patterns, especially those that typically develop later on in life, are not fully acquired in HS’s minds. The term, however, received a great amount of criticism (see Otheguy, 2016; Kupisch and Rothman, 2018), and has now been abandoned in favour of “divergent acquisition” (Polinsky, 2018), which emphasises differences without suggesting deficiencies. It is this divergent competence that is of interest in this paper and 3 aspects of proficiency are discussed in the context of speech samples: fluency, syntactic complexity and lexical diversity. Additionally, receptive grammar is also tapped into as there is a documented imbalance between HS’ receptive and productive skills with the former usually being much stronger.

The study: focuses on 7-9-year-old preadolescents growing up in Polish families living in the UK, whose speech samples have been collected, transcribed and coded for lexical and syntactic complexity, and fluency, and subsequently analysed. The results have been compared to monolingual control groups through multiple regression modelling.

Results: Although bilinguals are slightly less fluent, they generally fall within the norms for monolingual speakers for most variables. The most interesting finding, though, is that their language appears to be more complex syntactically than that of monolinguals in both heritage and dominant languages. This provides further evidence that HS’ language is not incomplete but that the outcome is divergent from that of monolinguals. It could also shed light on the role of creativity and imitation in language acquisition and cultural transmission, and provide further evidence that children imitate selectively when they have a better understanding of the function of a given construction or linguistic element. When the function is not fully understood, they imitate more faithfully (Klinger, Mayor and Bannard, 2016).


Klinger, J., Mayor, J. and Bannard, C. (2016) ‘Children’s Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-Culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience’, Child Development, 87(3), pp. 820–833. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12503.

Kupisch, T. and Rothman, J. (2018) ‘Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), pp. 564–582. doi: 10.1177/1367006916654355.

Montrul, S. (2008) ‘Incomplete Acquisition in Bilingualism: Re-examining the Age Factor’, in. Montrul, S. A. (2006) ‘Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism as an instance of language change’, pp. 379–400. doi: 10.1075/LALD.42.22MON.

Otheguy, R. (2016) ‘The linguistic competence of secondgeneration bilinguals’, pp. 301–319. doi: 10.1075/RLLT.9.16OTH.

Polinsky, M. (2006) ‘Incomplete acquisition: American Russian’, Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 14, pp. 191–262.

Polinsky, M. (2018) Heritage Languages and Their Speakers. Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781107252349.

Congratulations to HL2C Vice Director Cristina Flores: Habilitation (agregação)

Congratulations to HL2C Vice Director Professor Cristina Flores for successfully concluding her Portuguese Habilitation (agregação) examination earlier this week. The Habilitation is the highest university degree in European countries such as Germany and Portugal, requiring excellence in research, teaching, and academic leadership.

The public examination took place on February 21 and 22, with a panel consisting of Professor Isabel Ermida (Chair, Minho), Professor Anabela Gonçalves (Lisbon), Professor Georg Kaiser (Konstanz), Professor Jürgen Meisel (Hamburg), Professor Patrick Rebuschat (Lancaster University), and Professor Augusto Soares da Silva (Católica). The panel commended Cristina for her outstanding track-record in research, teaching and service and approved the candidate unanimously.


Standing, from left to right: Professor Anabela Gonçalves (Lisbon), Professor Cristina Flores (Minho), Professor Isabel Ermida (Minho), and Professor Augusto Soares da Silva (Católica). Participating via Zoom, on screen, from left to right: Professor Patrick Rebuschat (Lancaster University), Professor Jürgen Meisel (Hamburg), and Professor Georg Kaiser (Konstanz).

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