Below are freely available language testing resources by Lancaster staff and postgraduate students: journal articles, OASIS summaries, doctoral theses, videos, research instruments and training materials.

Journal articles

Alderson, J. C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2015). Towards a theory of diagnosis in second and foreign language assessment: Insights from professional practice across diverse fields. Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 236-260.

Alderson, J. C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Bridging assessment and learning: A view from second and foreign language assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24(3), 379-387. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2014). A lifetime of language testing: An interview with J. Charles Alderson. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(1), 103-119. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2014). Language for specific purposes: Current and future issues. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 216-225. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2016). Looking into reading II: A follow-up study on test-takers’ cognitive processes while completing Aptis B1 reading tasks. British Council Validation Series, VS/2016/01. London: British Council. 35pp.

Brunfaut, T. (2023). Future challenges and opportunities in language testing and assessment: Basic questions and principles at the forefront. Language Testing, 40(1), 15-23.

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2015). Looking into test-takers’ cognitive processing whilst completing reading tasks: A mixed-methods eye-tracking and stimulated recall study. ARAGs Research Reports Online, AR/2015/01. London: British Council. ISSN 2057-5203. 55pp.

Brunfaut, T., & Révész, A. (2015). The role of task and listener characteristics in second language listening. TESOL Quarterly, 49(1), 141-168.

Brunfaut, T., Harding, L., & Batty, A. O. (2018). Going online: The effect of mode of delivery on performances and perceptions on an English L2 writing test suite. Assessing Writing, 36, 3-18.

Brunfaut, T., Kormos, J., Michel, M., & Ratajczak, M. (2021). Testing young foreign language learners’ reading comprehension: Exploring the effects of working memory, grade level, and reading task. Language Testing.

Davila Pérez, G., van Splunder, F., Baten, L., Van Maele, J., & Diaz Moreno, Y. (2019). Benchmarking video presentations for CEFR usage in Cuba. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 8(1), 52-68.;

Harding, L. (2014). Communicative language testing: current issues and future research. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 186-197. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Harding, L. W., & McNamara, T. (2017). Language assessment: The challenge of ELF. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. J. Dewey (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics). Routledge. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Harding, L., Alderson, J. C., & Brunfaut, T. (2015). Diagnostic assessment of reading and listening in a second or foreign language: Elaborating on diagnostic principles. Language Testing, 32(3), 317-336.

Harding, L., Brunfaut, T., & Unger, J. (2020). Language testing in the ‘hostile environment’: The discursive construction of ‘secure English language testing’ in the United Kingdom. Applied Linguistics, 41(5), 662-687.

Iliovits, M., Harding, L., & Pill, J. (2022). Language use in an English-medium instruction university in Lebanon: Implications for the validity of international and local English tests for admissions. Journal of English-Medium Instruction, 1(2), 153-179.

Isaacs, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Pronunciation assessment. Language Teaching, 50(3), 347-366. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Michel, M. (2020). Motivational factors in computer-administered integrated skills tasks: A study of young learners. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 43-59.

Kormos, J., & Ratajczak, M. (2019). Time extension and the second language reading performance of children with different first language literacy profiles. ARAG Research reports online. The British Council.

Košak-Babuder, M., Kormos, J., Ratajczak, M., & Pižorn, K. (2019). The effect of read-aloud assistance on the text comprehension of dyslexic and non-dyslexic English language learners. Language Testing, 36(1), 51-75.

Kremmel, B., & Harding, L. (2020). Towards a comprehensive, empirical model of language assessment literacy across stakeholder groups: Developing the Language Assessment Literacy Survey. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 100-120.

Kremmel, B., Brunfaut, T., & Alderson, J. C. (2017). Exploring the role of phraseological knowledge in foreign language reading. Applied Linguistics, 38(6), 848-870.

Macqueen, S., Pill, J., & Knoch, U. (2021). Trust the test: Score-user perspectives on the roles of language tests in professional registration and skilled migration. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 10(1), 49–69.

McCray, G., & Brunfaut, T. (2018). Investigating the construct measured by banked gap-fill items: evidence from eye-tracking. Language Testing, 35(1), 51-73.

Michel, M., Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Ratajczak, M. (2019). The role of working memory in young second language learners’ written performances. Journal of Second Language Writing, 45, 31-45.

Pill, J., & Harding, L. W. (2019). A most engaging scholar: Tim McNamara and the role of language testing expertise. In C. Roever, & G. Wigglesworth (Eds.), Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara (pp. 217-228). (Language Testing and Evaluation). Peter Lang. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Rukthong, A., & Brunfaut, T. (2020). Is anybody listening? The nature of second language listening in integrated listening-to-summarize tasks. Language Testing, 37(1), 31-53.

Ryan, E., & Brunfaut, T. (2016). When the test developer does not speak the target language: the use of language informants in the test development process. Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 393-408. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Suzuki, S., Kormos, J., & Uchihara, T. (2021). The relationship between utterance and perceived fluency: A meta-analysis of correlational studies. The Modern Language Journal, 105(2).

Toomaneejinda, A., & Harding, L. W. (2018). Disagreement practices in ELF academic group discussion: Verbal, non-verbal and interactional strategies. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 7(2), 307–332. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Villa Larenas, S., & Brunfaut, T. (2022). But who trains the language teacher educator who trains the language teacher? An empirical investigation of Chilean EFL teacher educators’ language assessment literacy. Language Testing.

OASIS summaries

Kremmel, B., Harding, L., & Guggenbichler, E. (2020). A survey to detect what different groups need to know about language assessment. OASIS Summary of Kremmel, B. & Harding, L. (2020) in Language Assessment Quarterly.

McCray, G., Brunfaut, T., & Thompson-Lee, S., (2019). Gap-fills: what reading processes do they require? OASIS Summary of McCray & Brunfaut (2018) in Language Testing.

Doctoral theses

Rossi, O. (2021). Item writing skills and their development: Insights from an induction item writer training course [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Holzknecht, F. (2019). Double play in listening assessment [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Horak, T. (2011). An investigation into the effect of the Skills for Life Strategy on assessment and classroom practices in ESOL teaching in England [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Inoue, C. (2011). Task parallelness: Investigating the difficulty of two spoken narrative tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Kalnberzina, V. (2002). The interaction between affect and metacognition in language use: the case of foreign language anxiety [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Moradi, M. (2010). The washback effect of the specialised English test (SPE) [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Rukthong, A. (2015). Investigating the listening construct underlying listening-to-summarize tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].


Key considerations for investigating accessibility arrangements for test-takers with specific learning difficulties, Kormos. J. Talk given at the EALTA Equality Diversity and Inclusion Special Interest Group meeting, January 2023:

Interviews about Viewpoints on opportunities and challenges for the language testing community on the 40th anniversary of the journal Language Testing, Brunfaut, T., Burton, D., Ginther, A., Taylor, L., & Suvorov, R. Language Testing Bytes, Vodcast #36, December 2022:

An interview with Vahid Aryadoust on Rasch measurement for questionnaire construction, Bottini, R., Lestari, S.B., & Vahid Aryadoust. Online interview for “Quantitative methods for social sciences” funded through a Collaborative Innovative Grant by Methods North West, May 2022:

Language Assessment: Current Trends, Future Challenges – SALT Virtual Lecture Series, Harding, L. Talk given at Teachers College, Columbia University, January 2021:

In conversation with Tineke Brunfaut: The Language Testing Forum in the 2010s, Brunfaut, T., Lestari, S. B., & Ramos, C. November 2020: watch from 32:45 –

Technology, Values, Ethics and Consequences: From Innovation to Impact in Language Assessment, Harding, L. Talk given at New Directions East Asia conference, November 2020:

World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca: Implications for the spread of English, Harding, L. Talk given as part of the “Speaking of Variation” series of webinars hosted by LAEL, June 2020:

English as a Lingua Franca and Language Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities, Harding, L. Talk given at Georgetown University, October 2018:

Research instruments

Language Assessment Literacy survey

Training materials

Item writing for language testing – Olena Rossi’s website contains practical guides, presentations and worksheets on language test development and item writing