Below are freely available language testing resources by Lancaster staff and postgraduate students: journal articles, OASIS summaries, doctoral theses, videos, research instruments and training materials.

Journal articles

Brunfaut, T. (2023). Future challenges and opportunities in language testing and assessment: Basic questions and principles at the forefront. Language Testing, 40(1), 15-23.

Holzknecht, F., & Harding, L. (2023). Repeating the listening text: Effects on listener performance, metacognitive strategy use, and anxiety. TESOL Quarterly.

Lestari, S., & Brunfaut, T. (2023). Operationalizing the reading-into-writing construct in analytic rating scales: Effects of different approaches on rating. Language Testing, 40(3), 684-722.

Villa Larenas, S., & Brunfaut, T. (2023). But who trains the language teacher educator who trains the language teacher? An empirical investigation of Chilean EFL teacher educators’ language assessment literacy. Language Testing, 40(3), 463-492.

Iliovits, M., Harding, L., & Pill, J. (2022). Language use in an English-medium instruction university in Lebanon: Implications for the validity of international and local English tests for admissions. Journal of English-Medium Instruction, 1(2), 153-179.

Villa Larenas, S., & Brunfaut, T. (2022). But who trains the language teacher educator who trains the language teacher? An empirical investigation of Chilean EFL teacher educators’ language assessment literacy. Language Testing.

Brunfaut, T., Kormos, J., Michel, M., & Ratajczak, M. (2021). Testing young foreign language learners’ reading comprehension: Exploring the effects of working memory, grade level, and reading task. Language Testing.

Macqueen, S., Pill, J., & Knoch, U. (2021). Trust the test: Score-user perspectives on the roles of language tests in professional registration and skilled migration. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 10(1), 49–69.

Suzuki, S., Kormos, J., & Uchihara, T. (2021). The relationship between utterance and perceived fluency: A meta-analysis of correlational studies. The Modern Language Journal, 105(2).

Harding, L., Brunfaut, T., & Unger, J. (2020). Language testing in the ‘hostile environment’: The discursive construction of ‘secure English language testing’ in the United Kingdom. Applied Linguistics, 41(5), 662-687.

Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Michel, M. (2020). Motivational factors in computer-administered integrated skills tasks: A study of young learners. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 43-59.

Kremmel, B., & Harding, L. (2020). Towards a comprehensive, empirical model of language assessment literacy across stakeholder groups: Developing the Language Assessment Literacy Survey. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 100-120.

Rukthong, A., & Brunfaut, T. (2020). Is anybody listening? The nature of second language listening in integrated listening-to-summarize tasks. Language Testing, 37(1), 31-53.

Davila Pérez, G., van Splunder, F., Baten, L., Van Maele, J., & Diaz Moreno, Y. (2019). Benchmarking video presentations for CEFR usage in Cuba. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 8(1), 52-68.;

Kormos, J., & Ratajczak, M. (2019). Time extension and the second language reading performance of children with different first language literacy profiles. ARAG Research reports online. The British Council.

Košak-Babuder, M., Kormos, J., Ratajczak, M., & Pižorn, K. (2019). The effect of read-aloud assistance on the text comprehension of dyslexic and non-dyslexic English language learners. Language Testing, 36(1), 51-75.

Michel, M., Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Ratajczak, M. (2019). The role of working memory in young second language learners’ written performances. Journal of Second Language Writing, 45, 31-45.

Pill, J., & Harding, L. W. (2019). A most engaging scholar: Tim McNamara and the role of language testing expertise. In C. Roever, & G. Wigglesworth (Eds.), Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara (pp. 217-228). (Language Testing and Evaluation). Peter Lang. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T., Harding, L., & Batty, A. O. (2018). Going online: The effect of mode of delivery on performances and perceptions on an English L2 writing test suite. Assessing Writing, 36, 3-18.

McCray, G., & Brunfaut, T. (2018). Investigating the construct measured by banked gap-fill items: evidence from eye-tracking. Language Testing, 35(1), 51-73.

Toomaneejinda, A., & Harding, L. W. (2018). Disagreement practices in ELF academic group discussion: Verbal, non-verbal and interactional strategies. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 7(2), 307–332. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Alderson, J. C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Bridging assessment and learning: A view from second and foreign language assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24(3), 379-387. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Isaacs, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Pronunciation assessment. Language Teaching, 50(3), 347-366. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Harding, L. W., & McNamara, T. (2017). Language assessment: The challenge of ELF. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. J. Dewey (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics). Routledge. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Kremmel, B., Brunfaut, T., & Alderson, J. C. (2017). Exploring the role of phraseological knowledge in foreign language reading. Applied Linguistics, 38(6), 848-870.

Brunfaut, T. (2016). Looking into reading II: A follow-up study on test-takers’ cognitive processes while completing Aptis B1 reading tasks. British Council Validation Series, VS/2016/01. London: British Council.

Ryan, E., & Brunfaut, T. (2016). When the test developer does not speak the target language: the use of language informants in the test development process. Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 393-408. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Alderson, J. C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2015). Towards a theory of diagnosis in second and foreign language assessment: Insights from professional practice across diverse fields. Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 236-260.

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2015). Looking into test-takers’ cognitive processing whilst completing reading tasks: A mixed-methods eye-tracking and stimulated recall study. ARAGs Research Reports Online, AR/2015/01. London: British Council. ISSN 2057-5203.

Brunfaut, T., & Révész, A. (2015). The role of task and listener characteristics in second language listening. TESOL Quarterly, 49(1), 141-168.

Harding, L., Alderson, J. C., & Brunfaut, T. (2015). Diagnostic assessment of reading and listening in a second or foreign language: Elaborating on diagnostic principles. Language Testing, 32(3), 317-336.

Brunfaut, T. (2014). A lifetime of language testing: An interview with J. Charles Alderson. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(1), 103-119. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2014). Language for specific purposes: Current and future issues. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 216-225. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Harding, L. (2014). Communicative language testing: current issues and future research. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 186-197. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

OASIS summaries

Holzknecht, F. & Harding, L. (2023). Playing the recording twice in listening tasks: How does it affect students’ scores, their use of listening strategies and test-taking strategies, and their anxiety? OASIS Summary of Holzknecht, F. & Harding, L. (2023) in TESOL Quarterly.

Kremmel, B., Harding, L., & Guggenbichler, E. (2020). A survey to detect what different groups need to know about language assessment. OASIS Summary of Kremmel, B. & Harding, L. (2020) in Language Assessment Quarterly.

McCray, G., Brunfaut, T., & Thompson-Lee, S., (2019). Gap-fills: what reading processes do they require? OASIS Summary of McCray & Brunfaut (2018) in Language Testing.

Doctoral theses

Shahizan , N. A. (2023). Validating a group oral task in a university entry test: Interactional competence as a target construct in an academic context [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Eberharter, K. (2021). An investigation into the rater cognition of novice raters and the impact of cognitive attributes when assessing speaking [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Rossi, O. (2021). Item writing skills and their development: Insights from an induction item writer training course [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Holzknecht, F. (2019). Double play in listening assessment [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Toomaneejinda, A. (2019). An exploratory study of expressing disagreement in ELF academic group discussion [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Alkhelaiwi, S. (2017). Cognitive processes, sub-skills and strategies in academic lecture listening at a Saudi Arabian university: A needs analysis study [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Batty, A. O. (2017). The impact of visual cues on item response in video-mediated tests of foreign language listening comprehension [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Rukthong, A. (2015). Investigating the listening construct underlying listening-to-summarize tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Horak, T. (2011). An investigation into the effect of the Skills for Life Strategy on assessment and classroom practices in ESOL teaching in England [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Inoue, C. (2011). Task parallelness: Investigating the difficulty of two spoken narrative tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Moradi, M. (2010). The washback effect of the specialised English test (SPE) [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Kalnberzina, V. (2002). The interaction between affect and metacognition in language use: the case of foreign language anxiety [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].


A practical introduction to China’s Standards of English Language Ability, Pill, J. Talk for the British Association for Applied Linguistics Testing, Evaluation and Assessment Special Interest Group (BAAL TEASIG), April 2023:

Back to basics to be fit for the digital age: Reflecting on advancements, opportunities and challenges in technology-enhanced assessment, Brunfaut, T.  Keynote talk at the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) Conference, Madrid, Spain, April 2023:

Key considerations for investigating accessibility arrangements for test-takers with specific learning difficulties, Kormos., J. Talk given at the EALTA Equality Diversity and Inclusion Special Interest Group meeting, January 2023:

Interviews about Viewpoints on opportunities and challenges for the language testing community on the 40th anniversary of the journal Language Testing, Brunfaut, T., Burton, D., Ginther, A., Taylor, L., & Suvorov, R. Language Testing Bytes, Vodcast #36, December 2022:

English as a Lingua Franca in Language Assessment – Where are we now? Harding, L. Talk given as part of the Duolingo English Test “Innovations in Language Assessment” virtual webinar series, September 2022:

Current ESP testing for health professionals: a tentative diagnosis, Pill, J. Keynote talk at the British Association for Applied Linguistics Testing, Evaluation and Assessment Special Interest Group (BAAL TEASIG) Conference, London, UK, June 2022:

An interview with Vahid Aryadoust on Rasch measurement for questionnaire construction, Bottini, R., Lestari, S.B., & Vahid Aryadoust. Online interview for “Quantitative methods for social sciences” funded through a Collaborative Innovative Grant by Methods North West, May 2022:

Language Assessment: Current Trends, Future Challenges – SALT Virtual Lecture Series, Harding, L. Talk given at Teachers College, Columbia University, January 2021:

In conversation with Tineke Brunfaut: The Language Testing Forum in the 2010s, Brunfaut, T., Lestari, S. B., & Ramos, C. November 2020: watch from 32:45 –

Technology, Values, Ethics and Consequences: From Innovation to Impact in Language Assessment, Harding, L. Talk given at New Directions East Asia conference, November 2020:

World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca: Implications for the spread of English, Harding, L. Talk given as part of the “Speaking of Variation” series of webinars hosted by LAEL, June 2020:

English as a Lingua Franca and Language Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities, Harding, L. Talk given at Georgetown University, October 2018:

Research instruments

Language Assessment Literacy survey

Training materials

Item writing for language testing – Olena Rossi’s website contains practical guides, presentations and worksheets on language test development and item writing