Open Access resources in language testing

Below are freely available language testing resources by Lancaster staff and postgraduate students: journal articles, OASIS summaries, doctoral theses, videos, and research instruments.

Journal articles

Alderson, J. C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2015). Towards a theory of diagnosis in second and foreign language assessment: Insights from professional practice across diverse fields. Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 236-260.

Alderson, J.C., Brunfaut, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Bridging assessment and learning: A view from second and foreign language assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24(3), 379-387. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2014). A lifetime of language testing: An interview with J. Charles Alderson. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(1), 103-119. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2014). Language for specific purposes: Current and future issues. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 216-225. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Brunfaut, T. (2016). Looking into reading II: A follow-up study on test-takers’ cognitive processes while completing Aptis B1 reading tasks. British Council Validation Series, VS/2016/01. London: British Council. 35pp.

Brunfaut, T., & McCray, G. (2015). Looking into test-takers’ cognitive processing whilst completing reading tasks: A mixed-methods eye-tracking and stimulated recall study. ARAGs Research Reports Online, AR/2015/01. London: British Council. ISSN 2057-5203. 55pp.

Brunfaut, T., & Révész, A. (2015). The role of task and listener characteristics in second language listening. TESOL Quarterly, 49(1), 141-168.

Brunfaut, T., Harding, L., & Batty, A. O. (2018). Going online: The effect of mode of delivery on performances and perceptions on an English L2 writing test suite. Assessing Writing, 36, 3-18.

Brunfaut, T., Kormos, J., Michel, M., & Ratajczak, M. (2021). Testing young foreign language learners’ reading comprehension: Exploring the effects of working memory, grade level, and reading task. Language Testing.

Davila Pérez, G., van Splunder, F., Baten, L., Van Maele, J., & Diaz Moreno, Y. (2019). Benchmarking video presentations for CEFR usage in Cuba. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 8(1), 52-68.;

Harding, L. (2014). Communicative language testing: current issues and future research. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 186-197. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Harding, L. W., & McNamara, T. (2017). Language assessment: The challenge of ELF. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. J. Dewey (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics). Routledge. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Harding, L., Alderson, J. C., & Brunfaut, T. (2015). Diagnostic assessment of reading and listening in a second or foreign language: Elaborating on diagnostic principles. Language Testing, 32(3), 317-336.

Harding, L., Brunfaut, T., & Unger, J. (2020). Language testing in the ‘hostile environment’: The discursive construction of ‘secure English language testing’ in the United Kingdom. Applied Linguistics, 41(5), 662-687.

Isaacs, T., & Harding, L. (2017). Pronunciation assessment. Language Teaching, 50(3), 347-366. — Author accepted manuscript available at

Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Michel, M. (2020). Motivational factors in computer-administered integrated skills tasks: A study of young learners. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 43-59.

Košak-Babuder, M., Kormos, J., Ratajczak, M., & Pižorn, K. (2019). The effect of read-aloud assistance on the text comprehension of dyslexic and non-dyslexic English language learners. Language Testing, 36(1), 51-75.

Kremmel, B., & Harding, L. (2020). Towards a comprehensive, empirical model of language assessment literacy across stakeholder groups: Developing the Language Assessment Literacy Survey. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 100-120.

Kremmel, B., Brunfaut, T., & Alderson, J. C. (2017). Exploring the role of phraseological knowledge in foreign language reading. Applied Linguistics, 38(6), 848-870.

McCray, G., & Brunfaut, T. (2018). Investigating the construct measured by banked gap-fill items: evidence from eye-tracking. Language Testing, 35(1), 51-73.

Michel, M., Kormos, J., Brunfaut, T., & Ratajczak, M. (2019). The role of working memory in young second language learners’ written performances. Journal of Second Language Writing, 45, 31-45.

Pill, J., & Harding, L. W. (2019). A most engaging scholar: Tim McNamara and the role of language testing expertise. In C. Roever, & G. Wigglesworth (Eds.), Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara (pp. 217-228). (Language Testing and Evaluation). Peter Lang. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Rukthong, A., & Brunfaut, T. (2020). Is anybody listening? The nature of second language listening in integrated listening-to-summarize tasks. Language Testing, 37(1), 31-53.

Ryan, E., & Brunfaut, T. (2016). When the test developer does not speak the target language: the use of language informants in the test development process. Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 393-408. — Author accepted manuscript available at —

Suzuki, S., Kormos, J., & Uchihara, T. (2021). The relationship between utterance and perceived fluency: A meta-analysis of correlational studies. The Modern Language Journal, 105(2).

Toomaneejinda, A., & Harding, L. W. (2018). Disagreement practices in ELF academic group discussion: Verbal, non-verbal and interactional strategies. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 7(2), 307–332. — Author accepted manuscript available at

OASIS summaries

Kremmel, B., Harding, L., & Guggenbichler, E. (2020). A survey to detect what different groups need to know about language assessment. OASIS Summary of Kremmel, B. & Harding, L. (2020) in Language Assessment Quarterly.

McCray, G., Brunfaut, T., & Thompson-Lee, S., (2019). Gap-fills: what reading processes do they require? OASIS Summary of McCray & Brunfaut (2018) in Language Testing.

Doctoral theses

Holzknecht, F. (2019). Double play in listening assessment [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Horak, T. (2011). An investigation into the effect of the Skills for Life Strategy on assessment and classroom practices in ESOL teaching in England [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Inoue, C. (2011). Task parallelness: Investigating the difficulty of two spoken narrative tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Kalnberzina, V. (2002). The interaction between affect and metacognition in language use: the case of foreign language anxiety [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Moradi, M. (2010). The washback effect of the specialised English test (SPE) [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].

Rukthong, A. (2015). Investigating the listening construct underlying listening-to-summarize tasks [Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University].


Language Assessment: Current Trends, Future Challenges – SALT Virtual Lecture Series, Harding, L. Talk given at Teachers College, Columbia University, January 2021:

In conversation with Tineke Brunfaut: The Language Testing Forum in the 2010s, Brunfaut, T., Lestari, S., & Ramos, C. November 2020: watch from 32:45 –

Technology, Values, Ethics and Consequences: From Innovation to Impact in Language Assessment, Harding, L. Talk given at New Directions East Asia conference, November 2020:

World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca: Implications for the spread of English, Harding, L. Talk given as part of the “Speaking of Variation” series of webinars hosted by LAEL, June 2020:

English as a Lingua Franca and Language Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities, Harding, L. Talk given at Georgetown University, October 2018:

Research instruments

Language Assessment Literacy survey